50% of the girls and women who have been cut globally live in three countries - Egypt, Ethiopia and Indonesia.
In the past, dayas (traditional birth attendants) carried out FGM in Egypt; however, today there are concerns about a trend towards medicalisation. The most recent Demographic and Health Survey (DHS 2015) showed FGM prevalence to be lower among girls in the richest households and 10% of girls aged 0-14 years had undergone FGM compared with 23% of girls in the poorest households.
Percentage of women and girls aged 15 to 49 years who have undergone FGM
Political and legal context
- In 2007, the Ministry of Health banned health professionals from performing FGM in government and non-governmental hospitals and clinics.
- A Fatwa (a ruling on a point of Islamic law given by a recognized authority) was issued in 2007 condemning FGM. The Azhar Supreme Council of Islamic Research issued a statement that FGM has no basis in Islam Sharia or any of its partial provisions.
- In 2014 a new constitution was passed, protecting women from all forms of violence.
- National Council for Childhood and Motherhood set up in 2003.
- The National Council for Women integrated FGM into the Gender Based Violence National Strategy 2015-2019, supported by the United Nations Joint Programme on Female Genital Mutilation/ Cutting.
- The Egyptian government plans to reduce FGM by 10-15% by 2020. This initiative will involve Doctors and Judges, a media campaign, Ministries of Justice, Health, and Education, the Sunni Islam seat of Al-Azhar, Egyptian church officials and the Public Prosecutor’s Office.
- The Ministry of Justice established the “Combating Violence against Women Unit” in November 2013.
- National Council for Childhood and Motherhood (NCCM) set up a 24hrs toll-free child helpline number to facilitate reporting
Our work in Egypt: Following great efforts by partners and well positions like-minded organisations on the ground The Girl Generation plans to continue programme implementation work in 2017. We also plan on providing Social Change Communication training and support to grassroots organisations to shape the development of communication tools and initiatives.
Several potential opportunities exist for The Girl Generations work in Egypt, these include:
- Coalition building – aligning existing campaigns or work plans to inspire anti-FGM messaging
- Collaborating with champions of change/End FGM Ambassadors in activities or initiatives to end FGM
- Capacity building of key stakeholders at national and grassroots level
- Facilitating resource leveraging opportunities and rallying government support towards ending FGM in Egypt